Archive for the ‘Maths’ Category

Multiplexer Menagerie and the Ternary Photo-MOS

September 27, 2022

To be clear the multitude of Ternary 2 input gates is a gift to the creative mind, I have written a program that enumerates all 19683 and deemed all of them useful. An example of this is gate 2272 (TAB-index), which is “Tautology” or all “+1”, so any inputs at A and B results in +1 on the output. You might say what is the point of that? Only now it acts like a buffer or a line driver, so it serves a “function” in a ternary circuit or a re-encoder in a more complex circuit. After deciding what is needed to develop a Ternary computer, I first looked to the 27 Unary gates and the all gates that are commonly used in binary circuits, like AND, OR, NAND, NOR etc…which there are a total of 16 and which 6 are deemed the most useful.

Here is the complete set of Binary Relay Logic

Exploring the Trinary logic opens a whole new way of seeing and thinking about computer architecture. For example a multiplexer is a most versatile device when designing circuits so I chose to explore this device to see what can be learnt from applying ternary logic to its internals. In a previous post ( I showed my crafted and workable TD2-9 (2 input to 9 output) decoder. this will be the starting point of some new discoveries.

First lets go back to the simplest version the TD1-3 decoder:

I chose this one mainly due to the fact it can be used to decode Ternary to Binary, so one input from a Trinary based system can produce 3 signals to control a Binary based chip. So a mixture of Binary and Trinary is not difficult to attain.

Here is an example of one of my Binary to Ternary Interfaces based on a Analog Devices chip.

I have used a spread sheet to design the small Unary modules and 2 input Ternary Gate modules to develop these designs, they were based on the Ternary Relay designs I have outlined in my previous work.

The spread sheet model has helped me in developing combinatoric circuits and ensure consistent logical flow, as this is a new technological playground and has some crude pointers and intellectual fences to overcome. As the diagram of the 2 circuits show, we can decode with positive or negative numbers without the binary load that is usually a constrictive affair and become overly complex.

After much mind bending Ternary Logic visual calculations and pattern recognition, here is the First Ternary Multiplexer, TM3-1 with a future TM9-2, TM27-3 and TM81-4 as simple extensions. Where as the Binary can only achieve 2-1, 4-2, 8-3 and 16-4, so imagine how versatile these gates can be.

With this TM3-1 you could create a Ternary to binary converter, by using two of these

A Binary to Ternary converter is also possible:

They can also be usable as a 2-2 Encoder in binary:

Also by cascading the TM3-1 you can create the TM9-2.

Choice of Unary Operators

Using the binary combination of AND plus OR gates, I first applied the binary equivalents of the Ternary gates to create the Multiplexer but found the Ternary logic would not cooperate as easily as binary. This is when I realised that the ternary system would have a simpler gate choice to achieve the same result. Instead of TAND I used SAND, which has a simpler matrix, while the DNOR is similar to the TNOR gate. This gave me the start, which later I found that VAND and LAND gates also work.

Ternary 2 input Gates

Ternary Converter

During these discoveries, I realised a ternary converter would be useful by itself. The numbering system describes the 3 gates and the 2 input equivalent.


TLC = Ternary Logic Converter
1-3 = 1 input 3 output
13.15.23 = Unary gates used 13, 15 and 23
10148 = The 2 input gate number equivalent 1 to 19686

Hardware Versions

After many attempts to make these circuits simple and easy to follow, I decided to concentrate on the relay versions but started using Photo-MOS Relays instead. This I found to be advantageous as the noise was eliminated and the current consumption decreased with the bonus of high speed. I would like to see a Photo-mos version of Programmable Logic, this would create a whole new industry, as the Photo-mos relays are already a mature technology today.

There are many manufacturers of Photo relays, lets look at the IXYS lettering, this will simplify your creative pallet. NO = Normally Open, NC = Normally Closed.


LAA 2 in NO + NO 2 out 8 pin Dip

LBA 2 in NO + NC 2 out 8 Pin Dip

LBB 2 in NC + NC 2 out 8 Pin Dip

LCA 1 in NO 1 out 6 Pin Dip

LCB 1 in NC 1 out 6 Pin Dip

LCC 1 in NC + NO 2 out 8 Pin Dip

I opted to use the DIP 4 as well, as this would give me a more flexible layout and get different brand parts sourced and tested.

These designs cover the scope of mechanical relays, where you can configure SPST, SPDT, DTSP, DTDP different combinations, you can also have the current flow in either direction or as in neutral where there is no action to trigger the relayed combination.

The Spreadsheet Logic Code

This code is Located at E2

=IF(A1*10+A3=11,B1) + IF(A1*10+A3=10,C1) + IF(A1*10+A3=9,D1) +IF(A1*10+A3=1,B1) + IF(A1*10+A3=0,C1) + IF(A1*10+A3=-1,D1) + IF(A1*10+A3=-9,B1) + IF(A1*10+A3=-10,C1)+ IF(A1*10+A3=-11,D1)

Lets break this down:

The first part of the code

in long hand:
If A1 x 10 + A3 =11 then E2 Display Value = B1

Where you would normally write

If A1 = 1 and A3 = 1 then E2 Display Value = B1
By multiplying A1 by 10 then I can add the two the values without an a “AND” logical statement while keep track if it is true or not.

Example of A3 = 1
Say if A1 = 1 then A1 x 10 + A3 = 11
A1 = 0 = 1
A1 = -1 = -9

Also if A3 = 0
Say if A1 = 1 then A1 x 10 + A3 = 10
A1 = 0 = 0
A1 = -1 = -10

And finally if A3 = -1
Say if A1 = 1 then A1 x 10 + A3 = 9
A1 = 0 = -1
A1 = -1 = -11

So you can see that the “+” in the code means “OR” , so now you have a truth table with 9 unique values. -11 -10 -9 -1 0 1 9 10 11 .The pointers are the input at A1 and A3 which define the value at E3 , altogether these are the general Logic Inputs of A B result in C.

The code for the Unary input was much simpler.

= IF(A2=1,B1) + IF(A2=0,B2) + IF(A2=-1,B3)

As you can see it is vital that your two input gates are in the correct order where as the binary version does not have that problem. Your A and B inputs and the coding of your ternary signals have a specific order which is determined by the original Truth table orientation. The convention I call “Natural” (T1) is “+ 0 -” and the Truth table is “A” rows top to bottom and “B” columns is left to right. The other options, which I have found among other ternary researchers are listed here:

By this table you can see how this effects the look of the Truth Table. So as in human relations we also have different languages in communicating, translating will not be difficult as these ideas are universal. The Non-Balanced (0 1 2) might not be as easy, as these now become arbitrary according to the designer, they might consider the “switched P” (0 + -) used as “0 1 2”, where as the “Natural” being “+ 0 -” and the equivalent would be “1 0 2”, a very confusing translation would make it difficult. This ordering is related to the voltage levels from 0 volts to 1 volt to 2 volts, this would be articulated in hardware making it incomparable with the Natural order and only interfaced through a translator. The Natural system also easily accommodates the AC wave and can be used as a clock without much difficulty.

A Unary Gate Chip

The idea was to make a 12 pin bread board ready plug component that could be used to create gate combinations and test the results. Here is the UGC-V2 and a plug in header to change the Unary gate number as required. The plug-in header sits on top of the the J4 to J9 pins, it allows you to use all 27 gates. The unit is 20mm x 43mm and the plug is 20mm x 20mm.

Unary Gate Chip

I hope this spurs some interesting Ternary work and we might see a bright future in using “LIGHT” as the interface between the old Binary Paradigm to the new Trinary way of doing things. Regards Arto.

A Quantum Ellipse of the Old Kingdom

November 2, 2021

This Post is short, though I spend quite a lot of time working out this artefact. Please note the two triangles I have outlined in the diagram, one has an angle of 51.913 and the other 42.374, these are significant as they correlates closely to the Great Pyramid and the Senusret II Pyramid, these were the on the opposite sides of the pyramid field in my previous posts. Regards Arto

Pyramid Sonic Transceiver Technology – Part 5

October 29, 2021

As we can see by the many pictorial representations of the Dynastic Egyptian ruling class of their jewellery and the articles they adorn, is represented as their innate culture. For example the Uraeus represents the conscious frontal lobe and its functions of awareness and decision, where the Eye of Horus is the centre of the physical brain and where the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and pineal gland reside, while the vulture represents the subconscious and its dark and powerful presence, where its physical appearance and its function are aligned. The trinary mind is easily understood when seen this way and shows that mankind has lost the connection to many of these symbols that the Ancient Egyptians took as a given and well known among its intellectuals, artisans and officials. The scarab represents the brain both as the physical understanding of the skull and as a symbol of good fortune. When the scarab unfolds its wing caps and prepares to fly, it creates a frequency of sound that becomes flight, just like our brain when we unfold ideas, buzzing and with lots of activity, beside these ideas, the sound it creates indicates an acoustic element ignored by archaeologists.

These symbolic functionaries were not just an understanding of our mind but a slightly degraded version of an earlier technological connections with how sound was a vital part of our physical and psychic health. The understanding of illness and disease was also a holistic concern for all the ruling class as that was part and parcel of the knowledge that was passed on by heritage and learning. The great artworks created by the ancient Egyptians also recorded the rituals, procedures and psychological adoptions of their mannerisms, habits, priories and also any profound knowledge they utilised in their civilisation. For instance the 42 commandments that they followed was a great model for pious, virtuous, a well balanced way of life and personal being. These were artefacts from a previous civilisation that predated Dynastic Egypt, the legacy to help continue a way of life that was productive, organised and high cultured Kemetian history, now forgotten but partially understood by the Dynastic Egyptians.

All these symbols, writing, art and even games help reinforce the spiritual and psyhic health, where psychopathic, parasitical and criminal behaviour were easily filtered out and dealt with. The Kemetians knew the pitfalls of mankind’s behaviour as the degradation of mans fall from the Golden age, to the Silver, Bronze and the lowest Iron age (500 AD). It followed the precession of the equinox, which is the great Year cycle (25000 yrs) and was encoded into most of the structures and mythology so the torch of understanding could be awaken in the new upward cycle.

So many layers of knowledge was re-wrapped into mystery as the Dynasties time line grew, where their consistency of natural order was kept alive by the priests, the knowledge bearers and the families of the Pharaohs and leaders of Egypt. They codified, kept records and repaired the legacies from the past, until they lost much of the skill sets required to build and maintain the great Pyramid machines.

With the advent of rediscovery of the those great monuments of the past in the 16th century and onward, the early archaeologists were at a loss to explain its history, meanings and building techniques. They created scenarios, dates and interpreted much as mere ritual, superstition, death cults and fanatic multi God worship. They were reading the remnants of the Kemetian super culture that was decimated by catastrophe and rehabilitated by the Dynastic Egyptians who only decorated the structures built by their ancestors. All of the pyramids were built prior to the many catastrophes that Ancient Egypt endured, a great flood being the most pronounced, while much evidence for plasma storms also exist.

I can see by the ritual outfits that their were many forms of technology attached to them, long misunderstood intentions that became mere decorations. Without specifics I must agree that some of the technology was still functioning in early Dynastic times, the false door, the acoustic crowns and the many hand held articles seem to have a function attached, not just pure symbolic.

The Dynastic Egyptians even stated that much of the older writing was called the Sacred text and much of it was only reinterpreted into other forms as they could not even read it. The Narmar Pallet has no hieroglyphs as we know them in the later Dynasties. The Archaeologist believe this was a more primitive time, before the proper formulation of writing, where as we can clearly see much of the older text was already carved deeply and permanently into many pillars and monuments that already existed in the Dynastic period. This is why they adopted painting and plaster over the blank walls that were left by the Kemetians. Any sacred text was merely copied and adopted to the whims of Pharaohs and officials.

The funerary texts were written as a half forgotten parable of the technology I have uncovered. The deep caverns of the underworld were the stratified layers of different rocks and the densities, giving transmission times and quality of reception as this dark misunderstood place. The few remaining sites that were still functioning became centres of worship and ritual. When the last of the pyramid machines stopped, all was now a worship of the dead as the rituals no longer bore fruit. The times of reception and the cannons of codes now were mere decorations and in reality the Egyptians lost connections to the past not long after, possibly around 1500 BC.

I needed to update the last post as a few errors crept in, here a diagram of the upper portion of the Pyramid field and also a few more ideas about the different functions of each pyramid. I see the whole as a set of communication exchanges, with generators, amplifiers and redirection of the sonic pulses, much like a Telephone System but with the bedrock as the wires and the false doors as booths and the multiple tombs as frequency shifters, multipliers, multiplexers encoders and decoders. An ancient audio sonic technology that we can easily rebuild as we already use these techniques in audio engineering, ground radar , speaker and microphone technology. No need for laying down pipes, cables or wires, an endurable system that can function without maintenance for centuries, as for mobile communications, many monuments have direct connections to the bedrock, so a stone pillar with a portable Ank, a Sistrum and a suitable Hat/Crown can be used to communicate.

I hope these pages will go beyond the Ancient Egyptian technology and you can find the similarities in the Vedic Indians, Mayans and Olmecs and their head gear and Pyramids. Sound is the key to a clean and sustainable future where music is part of what we know about the nature of Mankind inner soul, physical being and creativity. Regards Arto.

The Pyramid Sonic Transceiver Technology – Part 2

October 1, 2021

This blog will be short, I will upload this picture file only, the transcript will be in part 3.

Thank you for being patient and if you would like to help with all my research endeavours, please donate, regards Arto.


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A Test Case for the Trinary Gate

June 5, 2021

Rather than try to instigate the trinary action directly from the positive, neutral and negative charges, I have simplified it by setting the switches using only the positive rail and neutral before I have set the Unary Gates, using a ADG5236 Analog switch chip. This is only a testing measure to get all the gates ready for integration into combinatory sets like Tand and Tnor. You can say combinatory only in Ternary because each two input gate is made up of three Unary gates from a pool of 27, while each Unary gates is made up of three switched sets, sometimes as two pairs of DPDT while one is redundant, due to the lack of physical trinary switches available on the market.

I have tried not to compromise on either side of the switched in/out design, still we need to move these ideas forward so we can find interesting and valuable Ternary circuits that can accomplish much and more of what its little Binary brother has done in the last 80 years. The use of CMOS, PMOS, NMOS have been used successfully by many inventors to create Trinary circuits but have never been popularised due to the logical tangle of the unknown element “0”. This by philosophical terms is the “unknown”, “undefined” or “undecided” element, as binary has either Yes or No to which there is an easy determinate path to follow, no questions about a vague unknown.

This dilemma of the neutral place where indecision is its home, is merely an illusion that has been created by a physiological inability of our mind to see it any other way. I offer a simpler approach where S. C. Kleene, Post, Lukasiewicz and others has written much on the mathematics and semantics of this, where as I see it as a natural condition of our physical universe. The Earth is the simple model I follow, where the positive charges are above us and the negative charges are below us, while we stand on the neutral ground. This simple model also works for water and any other boundary situation where “0” is now the path of all connections made by its very nature, a skin if you like. (as above a mirror as it is below). Indecision is not unknown, it can be weighed just as gravity can be defined by units being weighed, a heavy object as opposed to a light one.

Much has been written about mathematics of ternary and it has its advantages over binary for sure, here is some simple arithmetic. Again I follow my simple model:

There is a simple and enduring beauty using trinary logistics, you never end up in a lock up situation, due to the neutral line where it can always carry its logic to a complete solution. The binary has the problem of only having a “true” and “false” narrative, where that is not how nature works at all.

The early Atomic physicists had to resort to phantoms of matter such as “Electrons”, “Neutrons” and “Protons”, these are mere conventions of usage not a reality of our universe. They used these mnemonic devices to solve abstractions they did not fully comprehend. Charge is all we really know, sadly the Ether was incorrectly dismissed in the 20th Century as the carrier of all the physical universe, not so, as we should simply state that charge is one of the different conditions of the Ether. This also makes the Ether as a neutral state, thus making it the default condition of everything that is not moving, or charged in any way, while Gravity is the Pressure of the Ether on all Mass.

Once Trinary thought is used in all circumstances, War, Famine, Invention and Mans ailing conditions will improve beyond mere Utopian dreams. False narratives and political agendas will be nothing but illusions we will all see through and will serve no purpose in our pursuit of our quality of life and living. The Us and Them syndrome are but Marxist drivel used to divide our sensibilities against the true knowledge of our existence.

Trinary thinking no longer separates us into “Right” and “Wrong”, “True” and False”, “Yes” and “No” but introduces gradations of wisdom and experience. I ask is it wrong that a bird can walk while it is only known to fly in the minds of many. Is the colour of the sky Blue when we see it as Red, Orange and Yellow at other times. Binary thinking divides our perceptions along a boundary, this boundary is the “Undecided” or Neutral line which we will now understand in Trinary thought, as the connector of everything. In electrical engineering it has always been called “Earth”, “Common” or “Neutral”.

Art precedes science just as culture precedes politics, this is why “reductio ad absurdum” of modern philosophy is a regressive step with the binary decision trees built from notions of “Left” and “Right” factions are nonsense and are a danger to our own survival. The Quantum arguments currently exploited by “Modern Science” are but Binary semantics made into a religion, called “Scientism”. The rulers of our lives only require serfs not thinking individuals, who have, graduations of thought and experience where true diversity only exists when we are allowed to think freely.

Addition of Trinary

+ add + = +-

which is

1 + 1 = 2

+- add +- = ++

which is

2 + 2 = 4

so if “-” = -1


– add – = -+

which is

-1 + -1 = -2


-1 + 1 = 0 or 1 – 1 = 0

which is

– add + = 0

So a balanced ternary system is similar to the way we use electrical charge as well.

Here are the diagrams from my work, it will be included in my next volume “Talking To The Birds, Volume II”, coming soon, regards Arto.

The 2 to 9 Decoder

May 4, 2021

The 2 to 9 Decoder

by Arto Juhani Heino (c) 2021

The completion of the trinary understanding in relays has been very rewarding, this is my first attempt at a trinary decoder chip version of the 3-8 decider 74138, where a 2-9 decoder TD2-9 is a trinary designed device that would also do the job. It could be fabricated with FETs and miniaturised so it fits onto existing chip boards.

As I see this as my first step into making useful and efficient circuitry based on trinary inputs and easily adapted to the standards in current use. I see great promise in adapting trinary systems to current binary as a step into integration. These ideas are adaptable and flexible to be used in some AI systems. even now.

The long dreamed idea of a trinary system was to advance understanding of natures logic and repair the mistakes made in the service of short gain which is full of hubris and greed. Current digital systems can be 256 wide, but not in most cases they run 64bit and 32bit subsystems even some 16 and 8 bit are in the mix, is all due to the through put required by graphic chips to reduce time lags and memory bottle necks with all that constraint issues.

These behemoth super computer systems are complex to design and control. let us look some maths.

Binary Trinary

0………+ 0 –
2 bit…….3 trit
4 bit…….9 trit
8 bit…….27 trit
16 bit…..81 trit
32 bit…..243 trit at this point we have reached beyond our current systems
64 bit…..729 trit
128 bit…2187 trit
256 bit…6561 trit
512 bit…19683 trit As you can see that 64bit computing is the norm at present and moving into 128bit at lighting pace. Where we could have reached 729 trit in the same time frame. imagine the 64bit super cellphone you hold in your hand would have been the norm in 1980’s. This is the amount of development retardation we were forced to endure due to short sightedness and unripe understanding of all the future issues at hand. This simple list shows one aspect, here the binary decoder version

Binary inputs and Binary outputs

So a 3 to 8 decoder has the trinary equivent of the 2 to 9 decoder, if we ueed 3 inputs we would arrive at 27 outputs, the advantages are simple.

Trinary Inputs and Trinary outputs
Trinary Inputs and Binary outputs
Binary Inputs and Binary outputs
Binary Inputs and Trinary outputs
2___9……..TD2-9 can also act like two of 4 bit dual level logic (2 Only gates make a Sure gate)

There are no off the shelf trinary chips to build useful devices from these decoders as yet.At this present form(very large relays) you could apply these trinary systems to AI of the grid system, where self regulation with the enviroment is required and not optional. As you are dealing with an Earth that has all three parts of the trinary logic, the Sky, the surface and Inner Earth, as ” + 0 – “. I have extended the understanding here to illustrate our well of energy we walk upon.

This diagram illustrates the relay design of the three different trinary gates you need here. You can make the relays a small or big as you need . Everything here is simple and easily built on you electronic bench, please feel free to use these gates in a project.

INC and DEC gates and a TAND gate

As now I have decided upon my choice of trinary AND gates, which there are a few, the TAND gates now lives amongst my circuit ideas. More decoders and encoder to be illustrated very soon.

TD2-9 Trinary Decoder

Here is the place this circuit will live, 2 of these to drive the 16 pin 8 x 8 led matrix (ADM-388C0). How simple is that, 4 trinary trits control 81 LED locations, 64 for the Matrix and 17 for other things.Regards Arto.

The Trinary Explorer Board

Tesla’s Art of Individualization

March 22, 2014

Here is a link to my PDF file for my first draft of Tesla’s  Art of Individualization. Please consider a small donation so I can keep writing these types of articles, Regards Arto.


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Resonant LC Parameter Chart

March 20, 2014

Having worked on many types of resonant systems over the years(electrical, mechanical, acoustic), this chart is very useful to get a intuitive grasp on the some of the parameters and values needed for a basic LC (inductor, capacitor) electrical resonant system. It covers 100 Mhz to 1 Khz, I hope you find it useful, regards Arto.

I hope you consider, purchasing a copy of my book, so I can continue to create content like the one above, Regards Arto

Here is the press release and interview with Adam Bull.

Live Interview

December 14, 2013

Hi Fellow researchers ,

Adam Bull has released a 4 Hr interview on Youtube, it is informal and free flowing, about my book “Talking to the Birds”.

Here is the Link-

Here is the Press Release:

After many years of research, personal discovery and seeing the world through the perception of an Artist, one who by his very nature must understand something very deeply before he renders its likeness, Arto Heino has released his first volume “Talking to the Birds”. The subjects covered in his book are as varied as his pallet, he shows a different perspective about each subject he studies.  Volume I, A compilation of his best works, you will see the many different hats he wears as he sifts through a broad spectrum of knowledge with a profound insight into several pieces of hidden information ignored by most other researchers.

To understand the author of this work is to peer into layers of understanding that have not been lifted in most researchers lifetime. In the chapter on Archeo-Astronomy Arto looks at some of the basic assumptions about the nature of man’s history and came to some simple conclusions, the evidence he uses is not a rehash of another theory but new and startling revelations about the cyclic nature of our consciousness. The artist and writer Arto Heino shines the light where few others have on past ancient artifacts and current sciences that should give you a new way to see the past.

As a young child, Arto found meaning in natures chaos and his deep connection to some of its hidden attributes long before he articulated his understanding to others. Books gave him one of the tools to peer into history and find those who could help him guide his vision, great artists like Leonardo Da Vinci took him to a simpler way of personal scientific and artistic discovery. To show some of what he has learned from the master he gives a brief insight into one of Da Vinci’s more famous artworks.

The lure of electricity is never far from his thoughts, he has several chapters that deal with Electronics, Invention and Machines they cover some of the most important works of Nikola Tesla. Arto shows his own artistic method of understanding the circuits of Tesla and removes a lot of the mystery that surround his work. The circuit models by Arto are more like artworks that have a landscape of parameters and clues to other possibilities. He pries into some of the mystery that surrounds the work of Lester Hendershot, Don Smith and Henry Moray, giving  new insights that could help to guide other researchers to new conclusions.

The nature of the geometric abstraction is not just pretty patterns like most modern conveyors, to Arto this is where you can find a deeper connection to the sciences. He sees a simple form such as a triangle as a new beginning to a new and non-complex form of mathematics, Quantum Arithmetic. As he implies he is only expanding on something that the geometers have tried to bury, Arto shows some of his studies in Quantum Arithmetic and the expansion of a new type of geometric discovery, where he applies it to the Giza pyramid, the Kings chamber and an Egyptian artifact that has alluded many archaeologists and geometers for the past 80 years.

The surprise in the book is not just his varied perspective of technology but in one chapter Arto lifts the surface off our modern paradigm, he includes some of his more popular cartoon images to highlight the high paced and disturbing reductions of our elite. Arto as an artist and a musician gives those inclined an interesting group of studies.

If you would like a copy of the book –

Also Available from –

The Tesla Wireless Power Transeiver

March 6, 2013

The mistakes of understanding the resonant Tesla Transformer has led a lot of engineers into adopting the very equations that deny a workable transmission system. If you build a Tesla coil that creates big sparks, then have only understood a system for spark creation, if you have built it and there is no spark then you have either failed or succeeded in your attempt. This is the conundrum of a true Tesla system, the correctly sized top load will balance out the resonant system and the high voltage transform will not leak and become transformed back into high current by the balanced reactances. The act of the resonance will be dampen by the resistances in the system, only by adding a little more power per cycle you have a continuous resonant structure, which is the heart of a good Tesla Transformer system.

To create large sparks you must allow the streamers to escape, to do this it is essential to do two things first make a sharp breakout point, secondly you must lower the top load capacity gradually until your goal is achieved. However this is not the purpose of a Telsa Transmission system, it is the opposite of sparking, a good system will not have any breakout points, you must maintain a contained and smooth voltage gradient on the surface of your capacitor.

Power factor correction is the term used by all electrical engineers, to Nikola Tesla this was just a normal part of the his system to allow maximum power flow and not have a voltage and amperage out of phase condition, good power flow requires a 90 degree lag and lead situation. This was ok in the first part of a Tesla coil system, Mains step up transformer for the first 2 coils in the ratio of 1:50 = 240-12000, then the high voltage Tesla transformer coils in the ratio of 1:20 = 12000-240000, added magnifier coil 1:4 = 240000-960000 volts. If at each step you ensure a least resistance and the electrostaticaly contained condition is maintained you can guarantee good results. Some of the conditions that need to be met are as follows;

1. No sharp points to cause ionizing
2. Large curvature of surface conductors
3. No large objects nearby to cause inductive capacitive effects
4. Well insulated lead in conductors
5. Magnetically shielded switching system
6. Well sealed and mounted components

I have been working on a number of coil systems over the years, success is always proceeded by learning curves that are the essence of discovery. Much work can be saved by a small number of calculations, guess work is not a road for designers of electronics, this doesn’t mean you cannot experiment on unknown arrangements, its just that your components can only handle what their designed for or you will cook and blow a lot of your hard work away.

I am releasing my basic design of my Tesla Power Transceiver System. The energy that is being transmitted and received is not the of the Electromagnetic Transverse wave variety so a lot of Radio theory stuff is not needed, the Magneto-dielectric Longitudinal wave is what is utilized. I have tested smaller designs with success and have no problem with its conception, I was aware of this type of wave back in the early 70’s when I was building radio circuits and making my own antennas. When I rediscovered Tesla in the 1980’s and found the work of Eric Dollard, I was happy in my understanding of these Longitudinal waves. As I am a musician, I had no trouble in knowing about longitudinal wave harmonics and its analogue in sound waves.

I have Included the two types of Velocity in the design, for success in this process you must utilize the Tesla Velocity wave as the Velocity of light only relates to the Electromagnetic wave. As you can see in all the parameters only the Primary capacitor and the Toroids are of different value when you use the Tesla Velocity wave. All the pipe sizes are standard PVC drain pipe and should be available, remember this is only a preliminarily draft design, not all the parameters have been analyzed for optimal use. Build at your own risk, more info in my book “Talking To The Birds”, now available at,  Good luck Regards Arto.

Complete Specifications of a Tesla Wireless Power Transceiver

Complete Specifications of a Tesla Wireless Power Transceiver