Posts Tagged ‘Tesla coil’

Tesla Coil 336366 – Part 2

April 8, 2021

I forgot to add this vital understanding of volume and surface area regarding Tesla coils.

First you must realise that Tesla placed a high premium on getting the resonant factors correct. That any amount of electricity has a definite number (be coulombs or esu or ?) and must be included in the overall design structure. When the resonant action has been instigated there is a transference of magnetic to electrostatic potentials and visa versa, this must be balanced and carefully considered. The impedance matching is of vital importance to this action but a secondary balance is the volumes and areas of each set of coils.

The exact parameters can be calculated and you can see by Tesla’s work in Colorado Springs, he realised that a short cylindrical coil can be better utilised than a long coil and a flat spiral is much more compact than any cylinder can be. These studies had revealed to Tesla a beautiful geometric design that cannot be improved any further, a very compact and portable unit that awaits a audience that has chosen to ignore his proclamations. Below is the coil I am talking about.

I have drawn up such a coil system, approx 400mm x 400mm x 200mm unit (approx), it unfolds and plugs into a power source (Tesla AC) and hopefully communicates to a clone at a preset short distance with losses. Not only voice/data but Energy as well (100 watts or so). The frequency was always too high to be of use in power transfer as the losses increased with the frequency.

Below are listed only my estimates by reading much data and personal experience.


Tesla system (no compromise).1 to 5…………………………..95 to 99

Radio system…………………………….99.9 to 100 0………………1 to 0.00001

High freq Tesla Flat……………………40……………………………….60

High freq Tesla Cyl……………………..60………………………………40

Low freq Tesla Flat…………………….15……………………………….85

Low freq Tesla Cyl……………………..30……………………………….70

So why did I design 336366 coil system using a traditional long cylinder? Simple, convenience and to prove to myself that the longitudinal velocity is the KEY to instant communication as Tesla suggested. Efficiency was not always the driving factor but the ease of material supply and a personal demand for longer wave lengths in a simple setup. The flat coil size became problematic in many ways, still I will go down that road again.

Coil…………………………………………………………..Volume and Area

Volume of Secondary………………………………0.0004 Cubic Mtrs

Surface Area of Secondary………………………0.796 Sqr Mtrs

MAX Volume of Primary…………………………..0.00068 Cubic Mtrs

MIN Volume of Primary……………………………0.000016 Cubic Mtrs

MAX Surface Area of Primary…………………..0.424 Sqr Mtrs

MIN Surface Area of Primary……………………0.01 Sqr Mtrs

Primary Volume at the design size…………..0.00045 Cubic Mtrs

Primary Surface Area at the design size…..0.285 Cubic Mtrs

What Turn…………………………………………………..14

What Area Secondary to Primary Equiv……..0.78 Sqr Mtrs

What Turn (beyond this design)…………………26

What Volume Secondary to Primary Equiv…0.0004 Cubic Mtrs

What Turn (very close )…………………………….13

I want to follow up with the real McCoy, in the not too distance future, regards Arto.

Tesla Coil 336366

March 26, 2021

As this is part of my chapter on Tesla Coils, I might as well fill you in. I had recently consumed something that affected my stomach, not pleasant, it gave me an ulcer. So while I was recovering, with natural remedies, I decided try to finish one of my Tesla Coil designs.

I have been tentatively working on this Tesla Coil project for a few years(8 lol), specifically for Transmitting and Receiving, using 700 mtrs as a distance that needs to be crossed or a multiple of this, 1400, 2100, 2800 etc.

I figured that building from standard parts with a simple STL 3D prints with an accurate dimensional scheme we should get frequency matching accuracy due to the uniformity of the build.

Here is a TXT file, which is a couple of SCAD programs, that I have been translating my Tesla Coil Data to make a jig I can 3D print and put the main components of the Tesla Coil into a simple assemblage with some 3D parts.

1 x 1000mm of 110 tube
1 x 150/110 base connector
1 x 350 + mtrs of AWG 21 wire
1 x 16 mtrs of 1/4 copper tube
1 x 3Dcoil BaseL STL
1 x 3Dcoil BaseR STL
2 x 3Dcoil Base/edge Connector STL
1 x 100mm ball (Al, Cu) or (STL + Al foil)
1 x 4 point Switch Configuration Adapter STL
1 x 240v/15000v 60 ma Transformer
1 x Rotary Spark Gap 8″ dim + 12 protrusions at 400 RPM, makes 80 BPS
1 x Safety anti kick back system (protecting Mains & transformer)

Inductance of the Primary Coil will be from-
0.376 uH to 150.25 uH
I tap mine at 14.17386 turns which gives me
67.846873 uH
Capacitance for Primary Coil:
0.0033 uF
Voltage across Cap (max 30000):
21210 volts
Secondary DC resistance:

14.6647 Ohms

I chose:

Frequency = 336366.3513 hz
110 mm tube x 800 mm length of winding of secondary coil = 350 mtrs
The wave Length of The Longitudinal wave is different to EM wave
WL = V1 / ( Lw x 4 ) = 1400 mtrs
WL = V2 / F1 = 1400 mtrs

Consider an explosion, the shock wave is the longitudinal wave and the matter with splintered bits and fire is the transverse wave. Electricity has the same properties.

I use these formulae:

Ls = Secondary Coil Inductance
Lt = Secondary Coil Stray inductances + added adapter unit
Lst = Total inductance of Secondary Coil
Cs = Secondary Capacitance of Coil
Ct = Top Capacitance + stray Caps
Cst = Total Capacitance of Secondary Coil

Lp = Primary Coil Inductance
Lq = Primary Coil Stray inductances
Lpq = Total Inductance of Primary Coil
Cp = Primary Capacitance
Cq = Stray Capacitances of coil + adjuster
Cpq = Total Capacitance for the Primary coil

V1 = Electro Magnetic (Transverse Magnetic) Light Velocity (lagging)
V1 = 299792456
V1 = (Lw / 0.52324)^3 approx
V2 = Magneto Electric (Longitudinal Electrostatic) Velocity (leading)
V2 = V1 x pi / 2
V2 = 470912891.8272
V2 = 900000000 x 1 royal cubit (0.52324 mtrs)

  • note the different phase relationships between Voltage(electrostatics) and Amperage(magnetics) when you consider Power.
  • The Electrostatic Velocity leads Electromagnetism by pi/2. The only reason resonance occurs is the exchange from inner volume electro-magnetics running at Light velocity to outer surface electrostatics running at pi/2 times this, which is still proportional to the same amount of Energy. But the velocity is out by pi/2, allowing the circuit to breath.

E = 1/2 x (Cpq x Vp^2) = 0.5 x (0.00330 uF x 0.000001) x (21210 volts)^2
E = 1/2 x (Lpq x Ip^2) = 0.5 x (67.8468 uH x 0.000001) x (147.917 amps)^2
E = 1/2 x (Cst x Vs^2) = 0.5 x (15.5688 pf x 0.00000000001) x (308785 volts)^2
E = 1/2 x (Lst x Is^2) = 0.5 x (0.01438 H) x (10.16 Amps)^2
E = 0,74222 Joules
E = W * t

WL = Wave Length
Lw = Wire Length (I use 350 mtrs)

F1 = 1 / ( 2 x pi x sqrt( Lst x Cst )
F2 = 1 / ( 2 x pi x sqrt( Lpq x Cpq )
F3 = V2 / WL
F4 = (V1 / ( Lw x 4 )) x pi / 2
F5 = (V1 / WL ) x pi / 2
F6 = V2 / ( Lw x 4 )

WL = V2 / F1
V2 = V1 x pi / 2

Lst = Ls + Lt
Cst = Cs + Ct
Lpq = Lp + Lq
Cpq = Cp + Cq

These are the requirements

F1 = F2 = F3 = F4 = F5 = F6
WL = Lw x 4
Lst x Cst = Lpq x Cpq

Primary Coil Parametrics

Inductance per turn:
1 = 0.370488 uH
2 = 1.363580
3 = 2.918217
4 = 5.038095
5 = 7.750477
6 = 11.092889
7 = 15.107919
8 = 19.840884
9 = 25.338680
10 = 31.649171
11 = 38.820833
12` = 46.902557
13 = 55.943511
14 = 65.993060 14.17386 = 67.846855 uH
15 = 77.100714
16 = 89.316083
17 = 102.688860
18 = 117.268792
19 = 133.105676
20 = 150.249344

Q = XL / R
Q = 30000 / 15
My calculations show a secondary maximum Q of about 2000
Across my cap about 20000 volts
Q x V = 40,000,000 volts


The way I envisaged to switch over the 2 base Tesla designs was to just plug a unit into the side of the Tesla Coil Structure and it would be a matter of pulling a lever of setting a key switch to run in either mode.

I incorporated the Capacitance cavities so you could add more later, as you see by the ports P8 and P6 are their for that reason. P2 and P4 are there if you need to reduce your inductance by any degree by paralleling another wound inductor on a metal former. These ports allow you to experiment and modify as needed.

The main point of the Adaper unit was to make it as simple as plugging your HV-Transformer and Spark Gap into a simple 1/4″ set of bolts. Follow the instructions and all will work as planned.

I have drawn three different schematics, so you can see the simple logic I used for expansion into the real world by geometric means. The design of the two triangles was so the inductance is reduced by it opposing parallels.

My Thoughts

This is only theoretical but clearly plausible if air break down is not an issue while only on on minimum idle, the loaded system when doing work will reduce safely to about 300,000 volts and less.

Next Stage

The next part of the project will be setting up a transceiver system that can exchange energy between two points 700 mtrs apart, also at 700 times the number of wave lengths, losses must be calculated by trial and error. I am guessing safely over rough terrain about 4.9 km with acceptable losses (note – grid harmonics).


When needed, you can relay a transmission to further distances if the original signal degrades too far. You could possibly relay the Energy in Solar collectors that runs the Tesla coil and transmit it around the world, as the Earth spins, as the other relays they will start up the energy cycle again, then relay it to the next one. A continuous energy loop that is harnessing the Sun 24 hours a day. No wires, you would need 360 of these at 1 degree intervals, which is about 111 kms apart. This distance is no issue to a large well made Tesla Transmitter.

I hope you enjoy reading about this project I am still working on, regards Arto.

By the way here is the SCAD files, incomplete as yet, I will add it HERE later.

Tesla Coil Energy

January 9, 2021

Just a simple calculation of what sort of energy is in a resonant coil:

Here are the basic parameters:

R = 0.424 ohms (Wire)
L = 0.0934 henry (Coil)
C = 1466 pF (Capacitor)
V = 58 volts RMS

The resonant frequency
F = 1/(2xpixsqr(LxC)) = 43 Khz

The maximum amperage peak
I = Vs/R = 136.66 amps max

The root mean squared amperage
Irms = I / sqrt(2) = 96.638 amps RMS

The VA generator apparent power input required
VA = V x Irms = 5605 watts VA Rms

The inductive reactance
XL= 2xpixLxF = 2524.53 ohms

The capacitive reactance
XC= 1/(2xpixCxF) = 2524.53 ohms

The Quality of the Coil
Q = XL / R = 5948.65

The Voltage magnification of the coil
VL= XLxI = Q x V = 345022 volts RMS

The potential rise inside the Capacitor
VC= XCxI = 345022 volts RMS

Energy circulating in the Coil and the Capacitor
WL=1/2 x L x Irms^2 = 174.5 joules max
WC=1/2 x C x VC^2 = 174.5 joules max

The Resonant Condition

As you can see all the energy is continuously oscillating between the coil and the capacitor, or between the magnetic component of electricity and the electrostatic component of electricity. This energy can be expressed as watts and horse power as Tesla has done in his many articles, thus describing the massive movement of energy per second, allowing the reader to sense that it is a very powerful oscillator.

time = 1/frequency = 0.000023254 seconds

Watts = joules / time

Watts = 174.5 / 0.000023254

Watts = 7504699 watts

Horse Power = 7504699 / 745.697 = 10064 HP


Live Show

September 28, 2014

I am working towards a lecture and live show with live Painting,Tesla Coils, Poetry, Songs, Sacred Geometry and Free form Jazz….. what more can a man do without exploding on stage.

On my WordPress Blog

My Facebook Page

Tesla Coil Conversations

April 4, 2014

Tesla Coil Conversations

by Arto Juhani Heino (c) 2014

Memories of Tesla and 1000 other coils

Arto and Fred standing in front of a Large Cylindrical Tesla Coil, in the workshop and home laboratory of Arto Heino:

Arto: “Stick your hand in at the base of that big Tesla coil and tell me if the voltage is big”, he said while grinning wryly.
Fred: “No way man, I can see the high voltage at the top, which means I might die, because it is the current that kills”, jumps back while he exclaims, being puzzled by his own instinctive understanding.
Arto: “Well said, how did you figure that out?”
Fred: “Just hanging around you, by watching how you avoid touching the primary and any part down at the base of the coil”

He looks around the workshop and sees lots of different balls sizes and some toroids, he can see that they attach to the top of the Tesla coil.

Fred: “Why have you got that ball on top?”
Arto: “To store the reactive charge into the dielectric around the ball while the dielectric component is reflected at the anti-node and will be transformed back to the magnetic component at the base which is reflected by the node, all this happens during each cycle at its natural frequency and is the due to it’s standing wave resonant structure, which relates to the length of the wire being the quarter of the wave length of its natural frequency, while also adhering to the balance of two components the inductive which is the magnetic component and the capacitive which is the dielectric component at the same frequency,”
Arto: “To simplify they act as polar opposites both have reflections at the opposite node, Magnetic/Node, Dielectric/Anti-node, so simple no complicated explanation necessary. This sort of knowledge makes theoretical and mathematical people nervous.”
Fred: “Wow that changes a my way of thinking, they never told me that at school”
Arto: “I understand, sometimes understanding something is not easy, you have to be able to fail and disappoint yourself to get past those prejudices”

Now they are standing in front of a bench with lots of coils, capacitors and power supplies:

Fred: “What’s with that other coil, there is no sparks or ball?”
Arto: “Oh that is a half-wave system, that doesn’t use a reactive transformation like the Tesla Coil. It just swaps between the Voltage/Current transform, but in a nodal resonant fashion, by the length of the wire being half the length of the wave length of its natural frequency.”

Fred points to another fancy coil on the bench:

Fred: “That one their has a ball at either end, and a thick primary in the center.”
Arto: “That is another half wave system, but this one also has capacitive reactive exchanges at either end, it acts like two Tesla coils joined at the base.”

Fred walks over and flicks the switch that is labelled “LC circuit”.

Fred: “Then what’s this other one here, it has a Capacitor and Coil, but it sparks are small”
Arto: “That is similar to the Big Tesla Coil, but it only resonates between the reactive components not the nodal structure, the wire length only relates to the amount of turns and an increase in inductance”
Fred: “Oh so you are saying that resonance can be number of exchange devices”

Fred picks up a long cylindrical neon tube and walks over to the Tesla coil:

Fred: “Check out that Neon light when you bring it to the top of the coil”
Arto: “Yes, that is the high charge density around the top capacitance, it affects the neon inside the tube and makes it fluoresce, that’s why they call it a florescent tube”
Fred: “The light is not bright down here”
Arto: “That is because the alternating magnetic component does not affect the neon in the tube, and the dielectric charge density is low just like the voltage but having said that the current density is high”

Now they are standing in front of a industrial neon light fitting, using a multimeter:

Fred: “How come when I measure the small neon transformer here it only shows 120 volts”
Arto: “That’s the voltage just to maintain the florescent activity in the tube, the ignition circuit starts the florescence and is part of the same transformer, it just creates a inductive high voltage charge when the starter switches”

“It is not hard to teach people to look but its takes a lifetime to educate those to see.” – Arto Heino

This could be one  my last post on WordPress, due to slow sales of my book and lack of support for my work, I will be moving my previous posts and they will be only available as PDFs, sorry I given a lot of my work for free and do not know if I can continue with this blog, good luck to all the experimenters and researchers. Regards Arto.

The Tesla Crown Coil

July 13, 2012

Back in 1994 when I was working on my Mandela Coil which the forums currently call the Starship Coil, I needed to isolate the resonant action of the top load and the third coil, this led me to designing the Crown Coil. On paper the Crown coil was promising, it was only after building one of the versions of the Crown coil in 2011 that I was pleasantly surprised on how well it performed.


I hope these pictures help you make a version of this coil, just remember ***the outer vertical winding’s end at the tube*** each one joins to the spiral coil at the top and at the bottom, they do not go through the center of the tube as per the diagrammatic picture above.

As all the researchers in the forums and Tesla groups are discovering the inductive action of a Tesla secondary will encompass the tertiary coil, unless it becomes decoupled from it. Using a sphere as a top load will not be enough, a toroid will allow this differentiation and decouple so it can drive another load without affecting the impedance of the secondary. The Crown Coil also acts like a toroid and a tertiary coil in one.


This is an experimental design and could be vastly improved given the right recourses. all the data is preliminary and not complete. If you choose to copy this design please give due credit, regards Arto.

The coils inductance values are in series for six strands and paralleled for two groups. The capacitances are a lot harder to define and I have only presented the tentative values I gathered from measurements.

L1   = La1+Lb1+Lc1+Ld1+Le1       = 3.5776 uH = L2,L3….L12
L16 = L1+L2+L3+L4+L5+L6            = 21.4656 uH
L712= L7+L8+L9+L10+L11+L12      = 21.4656 uH
L16 + L712                                 = 42.9311 uH
Inductance in parallel L16 and L712 = (L16 x L712)/(L16 + L712)
L                                            = 10.7328 uH
C1 = Ca1+Cb1+Cc1+Cd1 = 2.975 + 8 + (2*((1/220)x6))/12 + 8 = 25.09 pF = C2.C3…C12
C = C1 *12               = 301.03 pF Capacitance in parallel
Note: Cc1+Cc2.+Cc3+Cc4+Cc5+Cc6 = 1 / ((1/220) x 6) = 37.66 pF Capacitance in series


Using an Oscilloscope and a signal generator I found the resonant frequency to be 2.8 Mhz very close to my calculations, I also found lots of harmonics above and below 2.8 Mhz

0.7 *
1.4 ****
2.8 ********** Octave 0
4.2 *
5.6 **** Octave 1
7.0 **
8.4 ***
11.2 *** Octave 2
22.4 *** Octave 3

As you can see by the list the electrical resonant notes are easily seen when sweeping the frequencies on my signal generator. The octaves are pronounced and a few other notes are also seen.

2.8 Fundamental
4.2 5th
5.6 1 st Octave
7.0 Oct + 3rd
8.4 Oct + 5th
11.2 2nd Octave
22.4 3rd Octave

I connected the Crown coil on top of my experimental Tesla coil secondary and ran it at 220Khz(1/4wave), it improved the spark length by 100%. This frequency was not concordant to the Crown coil, still it did show me I was doing something right.

After re-tuning the primary coil to run at 345Khz (pi/2 * Clight) , normally a Tesla coil will not work properly if the frequencies of the primary and the ¼ wave secondary are not set correctly. I was stunned that it worked and with a vast improvement of the system. Not only was the Crown coil getting pumped at a lower Octave = 2.8Mhz/ 8 , the coil was running at a super-luminal velocity!

Clight = Velocity of light = 299792458 mtrs per sec
Clight * pi/2 = 470912891 mtr per sec
Normal frequency of coil = 220000 Hz as per ¼ wave resonant Tesla coil
Additional frequency of coil = 345575 Hz as pi/2 x light velocity

After months of testing the crown coil in different situations, I decided to put a aluminum leaf electroscope on top of the Crown coil. This was an interesting experiment, as I observed the aluminum strips pulsating at about 0.25 Hz , I filmed this , but the quality was not clear(rushed arrangement), I will still post it.. An observer walked into the room had noted he felt a pulsing force as he walked towards the coil. I will conclude this a electrostatic pulse just as Tesla described in one of his arrangements. The driving system of my Tesla coil works nicely at about 100 watts (Variac 160 v * 0.625 amp)(NST 8000 v x 0.0125 amp), producing 150mm streamers, for hours if required. I have pushed the system to 400-500mm ungrounded streamers, but I found this unnecessary for experimental work, as things will start to fail if I run it for long periods.

As this is only the beginning of another journey of discovery, I am glad to share this with all who will follow the progress. The evolution of this coil will be interesting as the intensity of the charge increases as I tune the system, so as I redesign the Crown coil to resonate at different frequencies the tuning will become less critical. I will be eventually make to order a Crown coil to suite any Tesla Top load/ Third coil combination.

Adding other components to the crown coil such as a parabolic dish will make for some interesting experiments. I could direct the high voltage electrostatic pulses at any give direction. I have been carefully crafting the mold for it, the first few are very successful as Satellite dishes, Audio focus and radio astronomy projects. The parabolic dish is called the “The RAT Antenna” , this is a 600mm spun aluminum dish that is available for purchase from me, just email your inquiry, I will only ship in Australia.


This work here will be in my second volume of “Talking to the Birds”, the first volume is available now.